Original U.S. Civil War Springfield Model 1861 Norfolk Contract Rifled Musket - Dated 1863
Original Item: Only One Available. The Springfield Model 1861 was a Minié-type rifled musket shoulder-arm used by the United States Army and Marine Corps during the American Civil War. Commonly referred to as the "Springfield" (after its original place of production, Springfield, Massachusetts), it was the most widely used U.S. Army weapon during the Civil War, favored for its range, accuracy, and reliability.
The barrel was 40 inches long, firing a .58 caliber Minié ball, and the total weight was approximately 9 pounds. The Springfield had an effective range of 200 to 300 yards, and used percussion caps to fire (rather than the flintlocks of the 18th century, the last U.S. flintlock musket was the Model 1840). Trained troops were able to fire at a rate of three aimed shots per minute while maintaining accuracy up to 500 yards, though firing distances in the war were often much shorter. The most notable difference between the Model 1861 and the earlier Model 1855 was the elimination of the Maynard tape primer for the Model 1861 (the Maynard primer, a self-feeding primer system, was unreliable in damp weather, and the priming mechanism was expensive and time-consuming to produce). Further, unlike the Model 1855, the Model 1861 was never produced in a two-banded "short rifle" configuration.
The Springfield was aimed using flip-up leaf sights. The sight had two leaves, one for 300 yards and the other for 500 yards, and with both leaves down, the sight was set for a range of 100 yards. By contrast, the British Pattern 1853 Enfield, favored by the Confederates, utilized a ladder-sight system with 100 yard increments, using steps from 100 to 400 yards and a flip up ladder for ranges beyond 500 yards. While the Enfield's sights did allow finer range settings, the Springfield's simple leaves were more rugged and were less expensive to produce. The Enfield's sights extended to 900 yards (and further, on later models), compared to the 500 yard maximum range of the Springfield's sights. Realistically, though, hitting anything beyond 600 yards with either weapon was mostly a matter of luck. While the sight designs were very different, the two weapons were otherwise very similar, and had very similar effective ranges.
The Springfield Rifle cost $20 each at the Springfield Armory, where they were officially made. Overwhelmed by the demand, the armory opened its weapons patterns up to twenty private contractors, including Welch, Brown and Company of Norfolk, Connecticut. This company produced some 18,000 long arms under U.S. government contract circa 1862-63. These were marked simply with U.S. over NORFOLK on the lock plate, and also would have a stock maker cartouche on the left side of the stock between the lock screws. Usually this would be W. WELCH over NORFOLK CT, however some have been seen with MOWERY made stocks.
The Model 1861 was relatively scarce in the early years of the Civil War (many troops were still using Model 1842 smoothbored muskets and Model 1816/1822 muskets converted to percussion cap primers, both in .69 caliber). It is unlikely that any of these were available for use in the First Battle of Bull Run. However, over time, more and more regiments began receiving Model 1861 rifled muskets, though this upgrade appeared somewhat quicker in the Eastern Theater of Operations. Over 1,000,000 Model 1861 rifles were produced, with the Springfield Armory increasing its production during the war by contracting out to twenty other firms in the Union. The number of Model 1861 muskets produced by the Springfield Armory was 265,129 between January 1, 1861 and December 31, 1863. According to United States Muskets, Rifles and Carbines by Arcadi Gluckman Colonel Infantry, United States Army, published 1949.
After the war ended, many model 1861 and 1863 rifled muskets were modified to a breech loading actions with new metallic cartridges. With these modifications, the basic 1861 evolved into the Springfield Model 1873 which served the US until being replaced in the 1890s by modern breech loading rifles chambered for new smokeless powder rounds that were far superior to the Model 1873.
This example however was not converted, and is still in the original configuration. It is dated 1863 on the lock plate tail, and also has an Eagle stamped into the lock to the left of U.S / NORFOLK. The markings on the lock are still clear, and there is only light oxidation present on the lock plate. The barrel nocks form still shows the proof marks V / P / Eagle's Head, which are slightly faint due to powder burn. There is also still a "ghost" of the original "W. WELCH" in an arc over "NORFOLK CT", but it can only seen in the right light.
The stock on this example is still in very good condition, with a lovely red-brown walnut color. there are no major issues or splits, and it does not look to have been arsenal refurbished in the past. Still, it does show wear, and the original stock cartouches are gone. There are also the usual dents and dings resulting from service, as well as a missing chunk by the nose cap on the right side. Underneath the hammer is some wood loss due to powder burn.
The metalwork has a nice worn plum patina, with some areas of rust speckling. There also definitely is powder burn near the cap bolster, which is mainly on the bolster itself and the top of the barrel. In spite of this, the cleanout screw on the bolster moves freely and can easily be removed, as the screw slot is only slightly worn. The bore however is unfortunately quite fouled, with overall rusting. It definitely looks to not have been cleaned after the last time it was used, which was probably well over a century ago.
The lock is fully functional, holding at half cock and firing at full. The original three leaf rear sight is present and still fully functional. All three barrel bands still have their U markings, with a U.S. on the butt plate tang. The ramrod is the correct and original tulip type with an enlarged shank. Both sling swivels are still present.
This is a great chance to pick up a nice Civil War Contract Rifled musket by a rare maker, fully cleaned and ready to display!
Year of Manufacture: 1863
Cartridge Type: Minie Ball and Powder
Barrel Length: 40 Inches
Overall Length: 56 Inches
Action type: Side Action Lock
Feed System: Muzzle Loaded
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