Original U.S. Civil War Springfield M-1863 Converted to M-1866 Trapdoor Rifle using Scarce 2nd ALLIN System
Original Item: One Only. This is something we don't see everyday! This rifle started out as a Civil War Springfield Rifle Musket, dated 1864, made by SPRINGFIELD ARMORY, as indicated on the lock plate. There is also the "Spread Eagle" over U.S. marking, indicating military production. This particular rifle was technically a Model 1863, Type II, sometimes called the model 1864. Around 700,000 of all Model 1863 types were produced from 1863 until the end of the Civil War in 1865.
The U.S. Civil war had confirmed the adage of NEED is the Mother of INVENTION. Muzzle Loading Muskets and Rifles were extensively used but new developments continually resulted in a "fresh" breach loading system being adopted on a trial basis. The Union had as many as NINETEEN different systems issued during the war and the ALLIN system was a version that was considered a determination was made to standardize.
The Trapdoor system seemed to be the one that satisfied most authorities so more trials were held, and the trapdoor was adopted. The government then looked for for cost effective ways to modernize their rifles, and one way was to convert muzzle loading Rifle muskets to a breech loaders, as seen throughout the world.
The 1866 Trapdoor was made using a Civil War percussion Rifle which was made into a breech loader using a .50 cal barrel. and each years the system was improved until the finish result was the Model of 1873 which was adopted and remained until the Krag Rifle was introduced in the 1890s.
There is an excellent work TRAPDOOR SPRINGFIELD by Waite and Ernst published in 1980 that covered this very subject from 1865 - 1893. The very first Chapter is entitled "The ALLIN Breech-Loading System" which covers the Model Trap door rifle we offer here. The conversion made inventive use of the existing parts of the barrel, such as the cap lock bolster being turned into part of the breech lock system.
In fine condition, the lock is dated 1864 across the tail, with an EAGLE over U.S. over SPRINGFIELD. The Breech Block is DATED 1866 with an Eagle head cartouche, and there is a faded inspection cartouche to the rear of the lower lock screw. In very good condition this is a rare U.S. Military Rifle that led to the the legendary Model of 1873. The stock is in good condition, though it has had some sanding down on the edges of the fore stock, and looks to have been re-oiled sometime recently. The metalwork is bright, with signs of past pitting, now removed.
The bore shows clear lands and grooves, with a mostly bright finish, showing areas of oxidation in the grooves. The complicated ejection system on the left side used on early conversions is no longer present, replaced by a tab on the breech block. There is also a sling installed, but this appears to be a recent reproduction.
A very interesting piece of U.S. fireams history, ready to research and display!
Year of Manufacture: 1864 - Converted c.1866
Caliber: .50-70 government
Cartridge Type: Centerfire Cartridge
Barrel Length: 32 1/2 Inches
Overall Length: 56 Inches
Action type: Side Action Lock
Feed System: Trapdoor Breech Single Shot
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