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Original U.S. Civil War M-1863 Rifle by Providence Tool Co. Converted to Needham Breechloader

Regular price $1,895.00

Item Description

Original Item: Only One Available. This is a U.S. Model 1863 Contract rifle-musket with a Needham conversion, system in nice original condition. This type of alternation  was designed by two brothers, Joseph and George Henry Needham of London, England. Before its alteration from cap and ball to a .58 caliber breech-loading centerfire system in 1869, this long arm was a product of Providence Tool Co. in Providence Rhode Island

This Needham-altered, single-shot long arm is one of an unknown small quantity that were modified and retains a very pleasing appearance. Barrel exhibits light pinprick pitting over its surface. In complete condition, this musket retains its original stock, "S"-shaped beveled hammer, straight-shank ramrod, all barrel bands and sling swivels. Mechanics are strong and crisp. Bore is bright with clear lands and grooves, with just a bit of oxidation in some of the grooves. Black walnut stock is in excellent condition overall with just normal dings and nicks from use and storage.

Face of the lockplate stamped with a clear 1864 stamp behind the modified hammer. Lower right area of the plate in front of the hammer was cut to accommodate the unique Needham swing-out door for the side-loading breech. Traces of the U.S. Eagle proof mark is visible on the lock plate near the hammer. Although faint, the original manufacturer can still be seen:


Rifle still has its original tulip-head, steel ramrod. Buttstrap stamped with a strong "US". Needham conversion long arms were involved with an interesting history involving an Irish-American secret society. Immediately after the Civil War, the Fenian Brotherhood plotted to invade Canada to pressure England to grant independence to Ireland.

Bridesburg Needham conversions and the Fenian invasions of Canada
The Fenians were an Irish-American group who wanted to put pressure on Great Britain to free Ireland. They conspired to mount an invasion of Canada and occupy some territory in order to force concessions. The Fenians purchased surplus Bridesburg rifle-muskets and sent 600 armed men across the Canadian border from New York in June 1866. The small force briefly captured Fort Erie, but was readily overcome, and the men were sent back to the U.S. Surprisingly, the Fenians were sufficiently well connected politically that they were able to recover their guns along with their freedom to try again.

However, by the time the Fenians were considering a second foray across the border in 1867, the British troops in Canada were equipped with Snider conversions of the P1853 Enfield rifle, and the Fenians knew they would be seriously outmatched with their original muzzle-loading Bridesburg muskets. Reportedly, supporters of the Fenians rented space in a Trenton, New Jersey shop, where hired English gunsmiths performed the Needham conversions on about 5,000 rifle-muskets. The Fenians launched a second invasion in May of 1870 across the Vermont border. The Canadians were forewarned and the Fenians soundly defeated. This time, the guns used in the attack were confiscated by the U.S. Army, along with additional guns that had been stored in Trenton. The army subsequently auctioned off the guns, a large number of which were purchased by the surplus dealer Schuyler, Hartley & Graham. These guns account for the majority of the Needham conversion rifles which occasionally show up for sale.


Years of Manufacture: 1864
Caliber: .58"
Ammunition Type: Centerfire Cartridge
Overall Length: 56 inches
Action: Side Action Conversion
Feed System: Single Shot

NOTE: International orders of antique firearms MUST be shipped using UPS WW Services (courier). USPS Priority Mail international will not accept these.

Shipping Restrictions

    This product is not available for shipping in US state(s)
    New Jersey

    This product is available for international shipping.

Legal Information

  • IMA considers all of our antique guns as non-firing, inoperable and/or inert. Title 18, U.S. Code, Section 921(a)(16) defines antique firearms as all guns made prior to 1899. This law exempts antique firearms from any form of gun control or special engineering because they are not legally considered firearms. No FFL, C&R or any license is required to possess, transport, sell or trade Antique guns. All rifles and muskets sold by IMA that were manufactured prior to 1899 are considered Antiques by the US BATF (United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco & Firearms). Therefore, all of IMA's Antique guns may be shipped to all US States and most nations around the world.

    These antique guns are not sold in "live" condition. They are sold as collector's items or as "wall hangers". Any attempt at restoring an antique gun to be operational is strongly discouraged and is done so at the risk of the customer. By purchasing an antique gun from IMA you thereby release IMA, its employees and corporate officers from any and all liability associated with use of our Antique guns.

    Pre-1899 Manufacture, no licenses required, allowed to ship to almost any deliverable address across the globe. Please note that for international shipping, these MUST be shipped using UPS WW Services.

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