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ON10770

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Original U.S. WWI 4th Division 77th Field Artillery Battery F Named Grouping

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Original Items: One-of-a-kind Set. Private First Class James C. Glauner ASN 566686 of Downingtown Pennsylvania served in the Battery F, 77th Field Artillery, 4th Division. He fought in World War One from early August 1918 in the Ainse-Marne Offensive, the St. Mihiel Offensive and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive parts 1 and II all the to the Armistice of 11 November 1918 and later performed occupation duty. This collection of his Army issue uniform and other gear was recently acquired from the Bob Ford collection, with Mr. Ford having acquired the group directly from the Veterans family in 1982.

The 4th Division was organized at Camp Greene, North Carolina on 10 December 1917 under the command of Maj. Gen. George H. Cameron. It was here they adopted their distinctive insignia, the four ivy leaves. The ivy leaf came from the Roman numerals for four (IV) and signified their motto "Steadfast and Loyal". The division was organized as part of the United States buildup following the Declaration of War on 6 April 1917 and the entry of the United States into the war on the side of the British and French.

Included in this set are the following items:

- Dozens of wartime documents and personal correspondence between Private Glauner and his mother, as well as orders, post cards, detailed Battery F, 77th Field Artillery unit history ephemera most of which name Glauner.

- Wool Army tunic with 4th Infantry Division Ivy insignia on left shoulder, private chevron, overseas chevrons, WWI Victory Medal ribbon with 5 campaign stars, includes matching Jodphur style trousers.

- WWI Victory medal with box and campaign bars for Ainse-Marne Offensive, St. Mihiel O Meuse-Argonne, Defensive Sector

- Original photo album with dozens of wartime photos both in training and overseas.

- Original dog tag which reads James C. Glauner U.S.A 566686

- Ring with green enamel 4th Infantry Division Ivy insignia.

- Coblenz 1919 4th Division silk embroidered handkerchief.

- Much more!

Overall a wonderful set with full provenance of a U.S. Solider in the Allied Expedition Force that fought in WW1. Fantastic!

St. Mihiel Offensive
For the Battle of Saint-Mihiel, the division moved into an area south of Verdun as part of the First United States Army. General John Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) on the Western Front, had gotten the French and British to agree that the AEF would fight under its own organizational elements. One of the first missions assigned to the AEF was the reduction of the Saint-Mihiel salient. The 4th Division, assigned to V Corps, was on the western face of the salient. The plan was for V Corps to push generally southeast and to meet IV Corps who was pushing northwest, thereby trapping the Germans in the St. Mihiel area.

The 59th Infantry Regiment moved into an area previously occupied by the French, deploying along a nine kilometer front. On 12 September, the first patrols were sent forward by the 59th. The 4th Division attack began on 14 September with the 8th Brigade capturing the town of Manheulles. All along the front, the American forces pressed forward and closed the St. Mihiel salient.

Meuse-Argonne Offensive
On 26 September, the last great battle of World War I, the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, began. Moving under the cover of darkness for secrecy, the Americans had moved into their sector of the front following the completion of their mission in the St. Mihiel area. Three United States Army corps were assigned sectors along the United States part of the front. III Corps held the extreme right (eastern) part of the front with V Corps to their left. The 4th Division was assigned to III Corps. The III Corps sector had the 33rd Division on the right, the 80th Division had the center, and the 4th was assigned the left, with the 79th Division of V Corps on their left.

The 7th Brigade was moved to the line in the trenches around Hill 304. The division plan called for one brigade to fight until exhausted and then send the other brigade forward to press the attack. The attack of 26 September was made through a narrow valley. The 7th Brigade moved through the valley and, while taking large numbers of German prisoners, reached the second line of defenses by 09:00 near the town of Cuisy. The Germans provided a formidable opposition, but the 39th Infantry overcame them and moved through Septsarges. During this first day, the 7th Brigade had captured 1700 prisoners, and more than 40 guns. Division headquarters was moved forward to Cuisy.

On 27 September the attack resumed with an artillery barrage. The 39th Infantry followed the barrage until they encountered withering machine gun fire from the Bois des Ogons where they were held up. The 8th Brigade was brought forward on 29 September to take the place of the 39th on the line. The 8th Brigade moved through the Bois de Brieulles but met increasing machine gun fire from the Bois des Ogons. Very little progress was made over the next four days as the terrible condition of the roads at the rear hampered re-supply and reinforcement efforts. By 3 October, Phase I of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive was over.

Meuse-Argonne Offensive—Phase II
Through the strenuous efforts of the supply and ammunition trains, enough materiel had been acquired to resume the attack by 3 October. The division plan was to fight its way through the many forests surrounding the city of Brieulles and capture the city. On the morning of 4 October, the 8th Brigade moved out of the foxholes and moved across open ground under the cover of heavy fog. As the fog lifted the Germans opened fired from the front, the left and the right. The 58th fought forward wearing gas masks since many of the projectiles contained gas, finally managing to gain a foothold in the Bois des Fays. The line was able to advance no further for the next 4 days enduring constant shelling and German night patrols attempting to infiltrate their lines. Forward movement was again ordered on 9 October with the 7th Brigade attacking. The 8th Brigade was withdrawn for rest. The 39th Infantry was designated as the assaulting unit. The order to attack came just at sundown. With difficulty, the men stumbled forward in darkness wearing gas masks and under fire. Little progress could be made. The 39th withdrew to resume the attack at 07:00 on 10 October. 2/39th led the way and incurred heavy losses. Many of the officers in the 39th were killed or wounded, including all of the majors.

Another attack was ordered and by 17:30 2/39th had fought through the Bois de Peut de Faux. The men dug in for the night. Early on the morning of the 11th, the entire regimental staff of the 39th was gassed and LTC Troy Middleton, 47th Infantry was ordered to take command of the 39th. Attacking on the morning of 11 October, the 7th Brigade pushed through the Bois de Foret. The orders for 12 October were to clean out the last pockets of German resistance in the Bois de Foret. Patrols were sent out to the north side of Hill 299. On 13 October, 4th Division units were relieved by the 4th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Division.

On 10 October MG John L. Hines was selected to command III Corps. MG George H. Cameron was returned to the 4th Division as its commander. The 4th was withdrawn from the front on 19 October. During their 24 days of combat they had paid a heavy price with 244 officers and 7,168 men killed or wounded. They had fought their way over 13 kilometers and captured 2,731 enemy prisoners. The division relocated to Lucey as part of Second Army. MG Cameron received a new assignment to return to the United States to train new divisions on 22 October. Command passed temporarily to BG Benjamin, Commander, 7th Brigade before MG Mark L. Hersey arrived to assume command on 31 October.

The Armistice ending the war became effective at 11:00, 11 November 1918. The last casualties in the division were suffered by the 13th Field Artillery at 14:00 on that day.

World War I casualties
2,611 killed in action
9,895 wounded in action

Occupation duty
Under the terms of the Armistice, Germany was to evacuate all territory west of the Rhine. American troops were to relocate to the center section of this previously German occupied area all the way to the Koblenz bridgehead on the Rhine. The 4th marched into Germany, covering 330 miles in 15 days where it was widely dispersed over an area with Bad Bertrich as Division headquarters. The division established training for the men as well as sports and educational activities. In April 1919 the division moved to a new occupation area further north on the Rhine.

The division went north to Ahrweiler, Germany, in the Rheinland-Phalz area. In July the division returned to France and the last detachment sailed for the United States on 31 July 1919.
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